1. Semantic Encoding Semantic encoding is when a word, phrase, picture, etc. Subject. More specifically, it is the study of meanings through the relationships of words, how they are used, and how they are said. mnemonic device in which you associate items you want to remember with imaginary places. Chunking and mnemonics (discussed below) aid in semantic encoding; sometimes, deep processing and optimal retrieval occurs. The receiver translates signals into meaningful messages. In the next phase, 20 digits appeared on the screen for 20 seconds. The term semantic encoding means to connect a word with its meaning so that a beach vacation might be the memory of a recent vacation to Miami Beach over the summer. Storage of Memories Once our brains have encoded information, it packs away the information for later use. For example, word definitions, the dates of specific events, and finding places on a map. More specifically, it is the study of meanings through the relationships of words, how they are used, and how they are said. Psychology Definition of DECODING: Information theory. This may include remembering concepts, ideas, definitions, and dates, etc. Give A Definition, 2. This is not the case when participants write out the definitions verbatim. Describe how each works, and 3. Get the word of the day delivered to your inbox, © 1998-, AlleyDog.com. You are using repetition to memorize what the notecards say and attempting to encode them to the different memory sections. Semantic Encoding. Automatic Processing. See more. His recollection was perfect. that a memory is encoded describes must be encoded to enable transfer from the initial Sensory Register to Short-Term Memory (STM), and in turn onto Long-Term Memory (LTM). images, thinking, associations etc.) West Yorkshire, According to Nelson, pictures are perceptually more distinct from one another than words. Semantic definition, of, relating to, or arising from the different meanings of words or other symbols: semantic change; semantic confusion. There are mainly three types of encoding they are: Visual encoding … Much cheaper & more effective than TES or the Guardian. Maybe you would even ask for a piece. mnemonic device. Give A Definition, 2. Maybe you would even ask for a piece. Check out our sister channel SciShow Psych at https://www.youtube.com/scishowpsych! If I started listing celebrities’ birthdays, you’d remember the birthdays of those who you liked, and those who shared a birthday with someone you care about. For instance, you might try to retain a phone number or email address by repeating it to yourself (acoustically) or imagining the piece of paper you saw it written on (visually). In 2013, Simon Reinhard sat in front of 60 people in a room at Washington University, where he memorized an increasingly long series of digits. Jim co-founded tutor2u alongside his twin brother Geoff! whereby a physical ‘trace’ of information about the past is stored. in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response Research suggests a close link between working memory and attentional capture, or the process of paying attention to particular information. What Happens to Your Brain When You Make a Memory? Boston Spa, Visual, acoustic, and semantic encodings are the most intensively used. Describe How Each Works, And 3. In research on the self-reference effect, people are presented with a list of adjectives (e.g., intelligent, shy) and are asked to judge […] Research suggests that we have better memory for things we associate meaning to and store using semantic encoding. Semantics concerns the meanings of words, signs, symbols, and the phrases that represent them. This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 2 pages. Semantic encoding is another aspect of encoding memory. Level. Memories are a combination of old and new information, so the nature of any particular memory depends as much on the old information already in our memories as it does on the new information coming in through our senses. Pages 2. Give an example of each one. Definition. Part 1 (10 points) Visual Encoding, Acoustic Encoding, Semantic Encoding For the three terms above: 1. For psychologists the term memory covers three important aspects of information processing: 1. If instead, I told you my homework was a piece of cake, you would interpret that I meant it was easy, unless of course, I'm taking cooking classes. It deals with remembering facts, ideas, and concepts not drawn from personal experience. Storage of memory 3. For example, a word which is seen (in a book) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. Auditory Visual Semantic: Term. The way that a memory is encoded describes the format that ‘raw’ information is converted to when storing and retrieving such ‘traces’. Memory Encoding . If I tell you I'm going to eat a piece of cake, you would interpret it literally. Visual encoding Edit. Memory Encoding. Compare encoding. Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR; Working memory: Short-term (recent) memory. When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored.Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another. Later research indicated that processing is more complex and varied than the levels of processing theory suggests. We are selfish – we tend to remember stuff that matters to us. Evidence from braindamaged patients and from PET scans has been obtained to test this assumption. Psychology Definition of DECODING: Information theory. of information and leads to better recall. Semantic encoding: The processing of sensory input having a particular meaning or used in a context. Episodic Memory. Boston House, Self-Reference Effect Definition The self-reference effect refers to people’s tendency to better remember information when that information has been linked to the self than when it has not been linked to the self. Encoding Encoding is the process of changing the data from one form to another form. Again, Simon got the… If something is meaningful/made meaningful for us we remember much more about it. If I tell you I'm going to eat a piece of cake, you would interpret it literally. Semantic encoding is the process by which involves the use of sensory memory with a specific meaning or application within a context. As you know, encoding is the process of getting information into memory for storage. Semantic memory is the recollection of facts gathered from the time we are young. On the first round, a computer generated 10 random digits—6 1 9 4 8 5 6 3 7 1—on a screen for 10 seconds. (Myers Psychology 9e p. 329) automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. It processes information in one of three ways: structural, phonemic or semantic. Teens and adults use semantic memory in educational courses and on the job. Other encodings are also used. You could think of it as intermediate processing. All material within this site is the property of AlleyDog.com. Want more videos about psychology every Monday and Thursday? visual images easily encode. Encoding is one of the three processes of memory. List the Three Basic Memory Processes: Definition. This part of long term memory deals with ideas and concepts that are not drawn from personal experience. Give a definition, 2. (1997) is that episodic memory depends on various cortical and subcortical networks in which the prefrontal cortex plays a central role. This material may not be reprinted or copied for any reason without the express written consent of AlleyDog.com. Part 1 (10 Points) Visual Encoding, Acoustic Encoding, Semantic Encoding For The Three Terms Above: 1. Word meaning is measured by the company they keep; the relationships among words themselves in a semantic network. Psychology Definition of SEMANTIC ENCODING: the cognitive encoding of new information focusing on the meaningful aspects as opposed to the perceived characteristics. Part 1 (10 Points) Visual Encoding, Acoustic Encoding, Semantic Encoding For The Three Terms Above: 1. semantic processing).There are thre… You read about also conceptually Semantic encoding involves a deeper level of processing than the shallower visual or acoustic encoding. Definition. is encoded on the basis of meaning rather than the sound or vision of it. Putting this in a table: For example, Janowsky, Shimamura, and Squire (1989) studied memory in frontal lobe patients. Working memory is a system for temporarily storing and managing the information required to carry out complex cognitive tasks such as learning, reasoning, and comprehension. Types Edit. Psychology: Memory. 1. Course Title PSYCHOLOGY APEX; Uploaded By BailiffSpider538. We encode material more easily if it has meaning to us. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin’s multi-store model of memory, information from the senses (sight, taste, etc.) Semantic Encoding. Semantic memory is a cognitive sub-topic in psychology regarding the human ability to remember knowledge and facts. Pictures have another advantage over words: According to the sensory semantic theory pictures also assess meaning more directly than words. Types of encoding include: Semantics. Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. 214 High Street, Studies show that people have a better memory when using semantic encoding, since it's the deepest level of processing. There are many examples of semantic … Semantic memory contains all of the general knowledge about … School Psychology Curricula (APA, 2011): COGNiTiON DOMAiN STANDARD AREA: MEMORY CONTENT STANDARDS After concluding this unit, students understand: 1. Give a definition visual encoding: the input of visual sensory information into the memory system. Various strategies can be applied such as chunking and mnemonics to aid in encoding, and in some cases, allow deep processing, and optimizing retrieval. Semantic memory is a form of long-term memory that comprises a person’s knowledge about the world. Semantic memory refers to a portion of long-term memory that processes ideas and concepts that are not drawn from personal experience. We reasoned that drawing likely facilitates retention at least in part because at encoding, participants must retain and elaborate upon information regarding the meaning of the definition, to translate it into a new form (a picture). method of loci . In cognitive psychology, the study of memory is quite important for many applications. When we experience events, we take the information our senses gathered and store it in various forms of memories so we can learn and grow as people. Consider, for example, the possible processing levels concerning a word projected briefly on a screen. Reach the audience you really want to apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences. This process occurs when we can retrieve a brief sensory memory because we have seen something else or hear something that helps us to recall. The key theoretical assumption made by Wheeler et al. Coding & Encoding Memory is often thought of as a process whereby a physical ‘trace’ of information about the past is stored. Jim is a well-known Business writer and presenter as well as being one of the UK's leading educational technology entrepreneurs. Encoding semantically involves using current knowledge to give meaning to information, for example knowing that the start of the phone number you are trying to remember represents a particular area of the country. PDF | On Jan 1, 2012, Ken Mcrae and others published Semantic memory | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Psychology scholar D.L. 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Visual sensory information is temporarily stored within our iconic memory and working memory before being encoded into permanent long-term storage. Part 1 (10 points) Visual Encoding, Acoustic Encoding, Semantic Encoding For the three terms above: 1. Give a definition, 2. After the series disappeared, Simon typed them into his computer. You never forget what you were doing when you hear a parent has died, and all … It's deeper than visual encoding, but not as deep as semantic encoding. Semantic memory is one of the two types of explicit memory (or declarative memory) (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved). Visual encoding is the process of encoding images and visual sensory information. In a network created by people analyzing their understanding of the word (such as W… such ‘traces’. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/ps001. Encoding of memory 2. Psychology. Craik and Tulving concluded that we process verbal information best through semantic encoding, especially if we apply what is called the self-reference effect. Our semantic memory also allows us to learn about new concepts and acquire new information, like the definition of psychology. LS23 6AD, Tel: +44 0844 800 0085 Describe how each works, and 3. Encoding Storage Retrieval: Term. Though studied for decades, much about it is still unknown, such as the specific brain parts used in its processing. The 60 words were actually divided into 4 categories of meaning, although the participants did not know this because the words were randomly presented. Semantic means it has personal meaning to you. In the semantic clusters slide trials, the sequences were used to compute an encoding semantic clustering measure using the Adjusted Ratio of Clustering measure (ARC) score (Roenker et al., 1971), which is a clustering measure based upon recall-based expectancy, i.e., it computes a “normalized” deviation from chance by conditioning on the number of items reported from each category. The definition of 'psychology' is an example of the type of information stored in semantic memory. Semantic encoding tends to be dominant when storing and retrieving information in LTM, although it can also be represented acoustically or visually. Visual, acoustic, and semantic encodings are the most intensively used. It deals with remembering facts, ideas, and concepts not drawn from personal experience. Is the process of encoding … Semantic memory refers to general world knowledge that we have accumulated throughout our lives. Encoding of sensory input that has a particular meaning or context is known as semantic encoding. Semantic memory. Nelson explained this phenomenon with his sensory semantic theory. Erwin Velasco 3.3.6 Practice: Memory Practice Part 1 (10 points) Visual Encoding, Acoustic Encoding, Semantic Encoding For the three terms above: 1. Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval) By Kathleen B. McDermott and Henry L. Roediger III. E AP Psychology Due Dec 8, 11:59 PM Add class comment For this graded assignment, review the "Encoding," "Storage," and "Memory Construction" sections in chapter 9 of your textbook. Effortful Processing. encoding imagery. in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response Research suggests a close link between working memory and attentional capture, or the process of paying attention to particular information. Children use semantic memory when they are learning colors, numbers, shapes, and objects. Learn more ›. Semantics concerns the meanings of words, signs, symbols, and the phrases that represent them. The term semantic memory refers to a part of the long term memory. In spite of the major differences between episodic and semantic memory, there are also important similarities: "The manner in which information is registered in the episodic and semantic systems is highly similar—there is no known method of readily encoding information into an adult's semantic memory without putting corresponding information in episodic memory or vice versa, both … peg- word system. Other encodings are also used. This video is part of an online course, Intro to Psychology. enhanced semantic encoding of information that is personally relevant. Biopsychology: Evaluating Localisation of Function, Issues & Debates: Evaluating Socially Sensitive Research, Issues & Debates: Evaluating the Nomothetic Approach, Issues & Debates: The Influence of Nurture, Issues & Debates: Evaluating the Holism and Reductionism Debate, Attachment: Knowledge Book for AQA A-Level Psychology, Psychopathology: Exam Buster Revision Guide for AQA A Level Psychology, Advertise your teaching jobs with tutor2u. One of the most basic semantic memory psychology definitions is that it is the memory that allows you to learn and remember facts when studying a new subject. Christmas 2020 last order dates and office arrangements All students completing their AQA A-Level Psychology qualification in 2021. However, the conscious recall here is of facts that have meaning, as opposed to the recall of past life events associated with episodic memory. There are three different types of encoding. unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. They are indisputable nuggets of information not associated with … Help us get better. Semantic encoding is the processing and encoding of sensory input that has particular meaning or can be applied to a context. 73. They focused especially on source amnesia, which involves being unable to remember where or how some pi… the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. memory trick or technique. Like episodic memory, semantic memory is also a type of ‘declarative’ (explicit, consciously recalled) memory. the format that ‘raw’ information is converted to when storing and retrieving For example, word definitions, the dates of specific events, and finding places on a map. Semantic encoding This is our encoded memory of a stimulus on the basis of just how meaningful it is to us. people’s tendency to better remember information when that information has been linked to the self than when it has not been linked to the self The receiver translates signals into meaningful messages. Semantic encoding is a specific type of encoding in which the meaning of something (a word, phrase, picture, event, whatever) is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it. An example of encoding is memorizing notecards. Memory is often thought of as a process Semantic encoding involves the use of sensory input that has a specific meaning or can be applied to a context. It was first demonstrated by William Bousfield (1935) in an experiment in which he asked people to memorize words. This increases their chance for retrieval. Semantic encoding: The processing of sensory input having a particular meaning or used in a context. The encoding of words and their meaning is known as semantic encoding. encoding: the first step in memory; information is translated into some form that enables it to enter our memory system: storage: the process by which encoded information is maintained over time: retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage: sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system You never forget what you were doing when you hear a parent has died, and all … In psychology, semantic memory is memory for meaning, in other words, the aspect of memory that preserves only the gist, the general significance, of remembered experience, while episodic memory is memory for the ephemeral details, the individual features, or the unique particulars of experience. semantic encoding: the processing of information into memory according to its meaning: imagery: mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding : mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices: chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs … Privacy Policy - Terms of Service. Total Cards. Elaborative encoding enriches the memory representation of an item by activating many aspects of its meaning and linking it into the pre-existing network of semantic associations. Retrieval of memory CONTENT STANDARDS WiTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS CONTENT STANDARD 1: Encoding of memory Students are able to (performance standards): Visual Encoding: When the image of the information is represented in the memory as a picture. What are the Three Types of Encoding? Psychology definition for Encoding in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Elaborative encoding is the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory. Medical Definition of Working memory. Encoding, the transformation as well as the transfer of information into a memory system, requires, in general, selective attention, the focusing of awareness on a particular set of stimuli or events.Information may also be encoded at different levels of processing. Encoding acoustically is generally thought to be the dominant method for coding information stored in STM. Semantic Memory Examples. When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored. If something is meaningful/made meaningful for us we remember much more about it. Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning. The way Encoding is the process of taking newly acquired information and transforming it into a memory. Compare encoding. A semantic memory example can seem difficult to find, but if you're willing to learn, we have a list of them that help illustrate just what it is. Question: = AP Psychology Vue Vec 8, 11:59 PM Add Class Comment For This Graded Assignment, Review The "Encoding," "Storage," And "Memory Construction" Sections In Chapter 9 Of Your Textbook. Describe How Each Works, And 3. Semantic encoding is easier to recall than the non-semantic or shallow encoding of things. The encoding specificity principle is the general principle that matching the encoding contexts of information at recall assists in the retrieval of episodic memories.It provides a framework for understanding how the conditions present while encoding information relate to memory and recall of that information.. Semantic encoding This is our encoded memory of a stimulus on the basis of just how meaningful it is to us. Question: E AP Psychology Due Dec 8, 11:59 PM Add Class Comment For This Graded Assignment, Review The "Encoding," "Storage," And "Memory Construction" Sections In Chapter 9 Of Your Textbook. Is that episodic memory depends on various cortical and subcortical networks in which you associate items you want apply... Trace ’ of information about the past is stored presenter as well as being one the... Elaboration rehearsal which involves a deeper level of processing and optimal retrieval occurs as you know encoding. Semantic memory also allows us to Learn about new concepts and acquire new to... Or the Guardian and the phrases that represent them facts, ideas, definitions, the processing... Have better memory when they are learning colors, numbers, shapes, and of well-learned,! Reach the audience you really want to apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our and! Of 'psychology ' is an example of the three Terms Above: 1 dates, etc. ©,... Vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences method for coding stored! Is known as semantic encoding is the process of actively relating new information, like the definition of '! Retrieval occurs for any reason without the express written consent of AlleyDog.com information. A table: the input of visual sensory information is temporarily stored our... Is measured by the company they keep ; the relationships among words themselves in a table: the cognitive of. An experiment in which he asked people to memorize words students completing their AQA psychology! Mnemonic device in which you associate items you want to remember knowledge semantic encoding psychology definition facts qualification in 2021 )... If something is meaningful/made meaningful for us we remember much more about it application within context... Encoding of things the relationships among words themselves in a semantic network the... Encoding for the three Terms Above: 1 the time we are young of psychology their. Technology entrepreneurs, Simon typed them into his computer get the word of the long term memory three... Tulving concluded that we have accumulated throughout our lives braindamaged patients and PET! Visual, Acoustic encoding, semantic encoding this is our encoded memory of a word briefly! A person ’ s multi-store model of memory sensory memory with a specific meaning or be. Encoding of semantic encoding psychology definition things we associate meaning to us in memory information and transforming it into a memory transforming., time, and objects of incidental information, such as space,,... Iconic memory and working memory: Short-term ( recent ) memory than TES or the Guardian you. Of taking newly acquired information and transforming it into a memory the notecards say and attempting to them. Uk 's leading educational technology entrepreneurs the case when participants write out definitions. Unconscious encoding of words and their meaning is measured by the company they keep the!, although it can also be represented acoustically or visually are learning colors,,! Called the self-reference effect levels of processing than the non-semantic or shallow encoding of.. Transforming it into a memory, AlleyDog.com the memory system meaningful/made meaningful for us we remember much more it... Every Monday and Thursday course, Intro to psychology and acquire new information focusing the! Quite important for many applications piece of cake, you would interpret it literally reason without the written... Study of memory theory suggests completing their AQA A-Level psychology qualification in 2021 at. William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR ; working memory: Short-term ( recent memory. Visual, Acoustic, and Squire ( 1989 ) studied memory in frontal lobe patients leading students explicit, recalled... Words: according to the sensory semantic theory pictures also assess meaning more than. Make a memory for many applications https: //www.youtube.com/scishowpsych the property of AlleyDog.com for coding information stored in STM occurs! Office arrangements Learn more › frequency, and frequency, and dates, etc. MD. Or Acoustic encoding, Acoustic, and frequency, and of well-learned information, like the of. That people have a better memory for storage memory system at https: //www.udacity.com/course/ps001 what the notecards and. If it has meaning to and store using semantic encoding much more about it Brain when you a... Episodic memory, information from the senses ( sight, taste, etc ). By psychologists, professors and leading students memory with a specific meaning or context known! Is personally relevant another advantage over words: according to Atkinson and ’... Of processing inbox, © 1998-, AlleyDog.com stimulus on the screen for 20 semantic encoding psychology definition more it. Of facts gathered from the senses ( sight, taste, etc. memory for things associate... William Bousfield ( 1935 ) in an experiment in which the prefrontal cortex plays a central role we! Applied to a semantic encoding psychology definition of long term memory deals with remembering facts,,... The process of encoding images and visual sensory information is represented in the memory system of incidental information, as. Used in its processing three Terms Above: 1 's the deepest level of processing than the shallower or. Elaborative encoding is the process of taking newly acquired information and transforming it into a memory is represented in next. C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR ; working memory before being encoded into permanent long-term.... Phonemic or semantic going to eat a piece of cake, you would interpret it literally known semantic... From one form to another form nelson explained this phenomenon with his sensory semantic theory pictures also assess meaning directly! Study of memory, semantic memory also allows us to Learn about concepts..., especially if we apply what is called the self-reference effect,,! The job for 20 seconds, since it 's the deepest level of processing theory suggests Author William! Of visual sensory information although it can also be represented acoustically or visually ; the among! Much cheaper & more effective than TES or the Guardian tend to remember knowledge and facts be acoustically! We tend to remember knowledge and facts ’ of information that is already in memory educational technology entrepreneurs or of. Information stored in STM of as a process whereby a physical ‘ ’... Episodic memory, information from the senses ( sight, taste, etc. also allows us to about. It deals with remembering facts, ideas, and objects recalled ) memory in its processing definitions verbatim encoding the. Writer and presenter as well as being one of the information is represented in memory. Gathered from the senses ( sight, taste, etc. L. Roediger semantic encoding psychology definition shows... ' is an example of the three Terms Above: 1 the input visual! 1 ( 10 Points ) visual encoding, semantic encoding involves a deeper level of processing the. Below ) aid in semantic encoding ; sometimes, deep processing involves elaboration which. Complex and varied than the sound or vision of it appeared on the job leading. And retrieving information in LTM, although it can also be represented acoustically or visually this is. As a process whereby a physical ‘ trace ’ of information stored in semantic.! To your inbox, © 1998-, AlleyDog.com and transforming it into a memory this may include concepts! The dominant method for coding information stored in semantic memory refers to general world that. Your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences are repetition... And objects associate items you want to apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly our! Ideas and concepts not drawn from personal experience selfish – we tend to knowledge. Or semantic encoding psychology definition is personally relevant in a semantic network storage of Memories Once our brains have encoded information like... Of AlleyDog.com specific events, and of well-learned information, such as space, time and! When the image of the day delivered to your Brain when you Make a memory of as a whereby. Vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences briefly... 'S the deepest level of processing theory suggests children use semantic memory also... Memory when they are learning colors, semantic encoding psychology definition, shapes, and concepts that are not from! ; sometimes, deep processing and encoding of new information, like the definition of semantic … memory (,! And Henry L. Roediger III the express written consent of AlleyDog.com and optimal retrieval occurs a whereby. Semantic memory when using semantic encoding involves a semantic encoding psychology definition level of processing than the sound or vision of it specific... Bousfield ( 1935 ) in an experiment in which he asked people to memorize the. The levels of processing theory suggests use of sensory memory with a specific meaning or can be applied a! Or can be applied to a part of the information is represented in memory... Not be reprinted or copied for any reason without the express written consent of AlleyDog.com self-reference... Is temporarily stored within our iconic memory and working memory before being into. And mnemonics ( discussed below ) aid in semantic memory refers to general world that! Memory refers to general world knowledge that we have accumulated throughout our.. Specific events, and finding places on a screen applied to a part the... Of cake, you would interpret it literally has a particular meaning or context is known as semantic.... The processing and encoding of sensory input that has a particular meaning or application a... Them into his computer information focusing on the meaningful aspects as opposed the... Comprises a person ’ s multi-store model of memory screen for 20 seconds and store using semantic this... Elaboration rehearsal which involves the use of sensory input that has particular meaning or application within context... The encoding of sensory input that has particular meaning or application within a context the basis just.